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Object Name Orders, Military
Catalog Number 1911.008.00001a
Date April 13, 1861
Scope & Content Special Orders No. 49 for Brig. Gen. Walter Gwynn and Col. R. S. Ripley from Head Quarters Provisional Army, Charleston, South Carolina, April 13, 1861

Physical Appearance: April 13, 1861 - H[ea]d Q[uarte]rs S[outh] C[arolina] Army, Special Orders, No. 49} Directs that Col[onel] R. S. Ripley's Artillery Battalion and Maj[or] [Walter] Gwynn's Eng[ineer]s to accompany the detachment and make necessary reports back to this office. Contains an extract of orders from Head Quarters Provisional Army, C[onfederate] S[tates of] A[merica], Charleston, S[outh] C[arolina] - concerns Major Anderson's evacuation of Fort Sumter and orders that ranking Officers of Engineers and Artillery accompany a detachment of a company already ordered out as part of the garrison for Fort Sumter and make a report of the fort's conditions. By order of Brig[adier] Gen[era]l Dunovant. Signed "N. G. Evans" Adj[utan]t Gen[era]l. 2 pp. Marks: "Metal Case 3 G 70" and "April 13th 1861 / R. G. M. Dunovant / Brig. Genl. / Orders No. 49 / Charleston S. C." on reverse of page 2.
Archival History Gwynn's papes and commissions were formerly located in the MC 3 G-453 files. Oversize commissions were transferred to the Certificate Collection in December 1997. An oil painting of Gwynn (0985.14.78) is stored in the Museum's portrait collection. Walter Gwynn was born on February 22, 1802 in Jefferson County, Virginia. He was appointed to West Point in 1818 and graduated 8th in his class in 1822. He served ten years in the U. S. army as lieutenant of artillery as well as working for private railroads as a civil engineer. He resigned in 1832 to work for the Portsmouth & Roanoke Railroad. From 1836 to 1840, Gwynn served as chief engineer for the Wilmington & Raleigh Railroad. During the 1840s, he worked for various Virginia railroads and as president of the James River & Kanawha Canal Company. By 1857, he was Chief Engineer of the North Carolina Railroad and had earned the reputation of "the founder of the southeastern railway system." He retired and moved to South Carolina, where the governor appointed him to "reconnoiter the approaches to Fort Sumter in December 1860." He was commissioned a Major in P. A. C. S. in March 1861 and assigned to take charge of construction of batteries at strategic locations in Charleston Harbor. He was nominated a Major General of Virginia volunteers on April 12, 1861 and given command of state forces defending Norfolk. He was confirmed as a Brigadier General and performed his duties at Norfolk until relieved by regular Confederate troops on May 23. His Virginia commission expired due to the dissolution of Virginia's volunteer army and North Carolina Governor John Ellis commissioned Gwynn a Brigadier General of of NC volunteer troops. This commission was expired as well on August 20 when NC volunteer forces were disbanded. On October 9, 1862, he was appointed a Colonel in P. A. C. S. and ordered by the Secretary of War to survey NC coastal defenses. Gwynn performed those duties until he resigned in 1863. He then took no further active part in the war. Postwar, he moved back to NC and served the state in minor surveying and archival projects. Gwynn died on February 6, 1882 in Baltimore, Maryland and was buried in Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.
People Gwynn, Walter
Evans, Nathan George
Ripley, R. S., Col.
Dunovant, Robert Gill Mills
Search Terms Fort Sumter
Battle of Fort Sumter
Subjects Military exchanges
Military headquarters
Military intelligence
Military leadership
Military maneuvers
Military mobilizations
Military officers
Military personnel
Military reconnaissance
Military stations
Military tactics
Forts & fortifications